Lit Notes

Mr. Croy’s Reading Notes:


  1. Genre: a piece of literature with a certain style, form and content.
  2. Examples of genre: Science Fiction, Fantasy, Thrillers, Adventure, Romance,  
  3. Fiction: a story about imaginary people and events.
  4. Non Fiction: a story about real people and events.
  5. Plot: The chain of events that makes up a story. (The sequence of events in a story. The order in which events happen.)


  1. (Can you draw a plot diagram? Can you label all of the elements of Plot on your Plot Diagram?)


  1. Elements of Plot:
  • Exposition: introduces the characters and setting.
  • Inciting Incident: the problem begins
  • Rising Action: more problems
  • Climax: most exciting part’ Turning point
  • Falling Action: the problems decrease
  • Resolution: the problem is solved
  • Denouncement: anything that happens after the resolution. 
  1. Setting: The time and place of a story. When and where a story takes place.  
  2. Protagonist: the main character in a story.  
  3. Antagonist: a character or force in conflict with the main character.
  4. Foreshadowing: hints or clues that suggest what will happen later in a story.  
  5. Flashback: the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an event of an earlier time.  
  6. Suspense: the anxiety a reader feels about what will happen next in a story.  
  7. Dialogue: lines spoken by characters in a story.  
  8. Theme: the central idea or truth a story reveals about life. Like the lesson or moral of the story.  
  9. Irony: a contrast between what we expect will happen and what actually happens.
  10. Symbolism: when a person, place, or thing stands for something beyond itself.   
  11. Mood: the feeling or atmosphere that is created by a work of literature.  
  12. Tone: the attitude a writer takes toward a subject, character, or audience.  
  13. Cliffhanger: an ending to a section, chapter, or book, that leaves the reader in suspense.
  14. Characters: people, animals, or things that take part in the action of a  story. (Examples: protagonist & antagonist)
  15. Conflict: the problem in a story.  
  16. Internal Conflict: a problem the happens within in a character. (Like a difficult decision.)
  17. External Conflict: a problem outside of character. (Like a fight, a race, etc. Where two or more are competing.)
  18. 5 Types of Conflict in Literature:
  • Character vs. Character
  • Character vs. Self
  • Character vs. Society
  • Character vs.Nature
  • Character vs. Supernatural
  • (Maybe: a 6th: Character vs. Technology)
  1. Character traits: the qualities that make a person or character unique. It could be physical or personality traits.


  1. Dynamic character: this type of character undergoes a great change from the start to the finish of the novel.


  1. Static character (also known as flat): this type of character does not change.


  1. A round character is extremely realistic, behaving and speaking in a “real life” manner.


Types of Figurative Language

  1. Simile: a comparison using “like” or “as”

Example: Her hair was as soft as silk. Her eyes were like diamonds. 

  1. Metaphor: a direct comparison between two unlike things.

Example: He is a tank on the football team.

  1. Hyperbole: extreme exaggeration; not to be taken literally.

Example: You’ve already told me that story a million times. 

  1. Personification: giving human characteristics to something that isn’t human.

Example: The wind moaned all night. 

  1. Alliteration: the repetition of the initial consonant sound of words.

Example: Layers of leaves were left lying on the steps to the house. 

  1. Onomatopoeia: words that imitate sounds

Example: Splash! Boom! Bang! Pop! 

  1. Idiom: an expression that cannot be understood from the literal meaning of their words.

Examples: She was happy she was on the last leg of her journey. 

We could tell by his expression that he had something up his sleeve. 

  1. allusion: an expression meant to bring some other thing (book, character, movie, song, etc.) to mind without stating it directly. 

Example: Everyone called Kate, Loren, and Emma the Three Musketeers. 



Mythology Notes:  

Mr. Croy’s Mythology Notes

38. Zeus (Jupiter): king of the gods.  Lives in Mt. Olympus. Thunderbolt is his weapon.